Critiquing Data Stories: Working LibDems Job Creation Data Map with OpenRefine
As well as creating data stories, should the role of a data journalist be to critique data stories put out by governments, companies, and political parties?
Via a tweet yesterday I saw a link to a data powered map from the Lib Dems (A Million Jobs), which claimed to illustrate how, through a variety of schemes, they had contributed to the creation of a million private sector jobs across the UK. Markers presumably identify where the jobs were created, and a text description pop up provides information about the corresponding scheme or initiative.
If we view source on the page, we can see where the map – and maybe the data being used to power it, comes from…
Ah ha – it’s an embedded map from a Google Fusion Table…
We can view the table itself by grabbing the key – 1whG2X7lpAT5_nfAfuRPUc146f0RVOpETXOwB8sQ – and poppiing it into a standard URL (grabbed from viewing another Fusion Table within Fusion Tables itself) of the form:
The description data is curtailed, but we can see the full description on the card view:
Unfortunately, downloads of the data have been disabled, but with a tiny bit of thought we can easily come up with a tractable, if crude, way of getting the data… You may be able to work out how when you see what it looks like when I load it into OpenRefine.
This repeating pattern of rows is one that we might often encounter in data sets pulled from reports or things like PDF documents. To be able to usefully work with this data, it would be far easier if it was arranged by column, with the groups-of-three row records arranged instead as a single row spread across three columns.
Looking through the OpenRefine column tools menu, we find a transpose tool that looks as if it may help with that:
And as if by magic, we have recreated a workable table:-)
If we generate a text facet on the descriptions, we can look to see how many markers map onto the same description (presumably, the same scheme?
If we peer a bit more closely, we see that some of the numbers relating to job site locations as referred to in the description don’t seem to tally with the number of markers? So what do the markers represent, and how do they relate to the descriptions? And furthermore – what do the actual postcodes relate to? And where are the links to formal descriptions of the schemes referred to?
What this “example” of data journalistic practice by the Lib Dems shows is how it can generate a whole wealth of additional questions, both from a critical reading just of the data itself, (for example, trying to match mentions of job locations with the number of markers on the map or rows referring to that scheme in the table), as we all question that lead on from the data – where can we find more details about the local cycling and green travel scheme that was awarded £590,000, for example?
Using similar text processing techniques to those described in Analysing UK Lobbying Data Using OpenRefine, we can also start trying to pull out some more detail from the data. For example, by observation we notice that the phrase Summary: Lib Dems in Government have given a £ starts many of the descriptions:
Using a regular expression, we can pull out the amounts that are referred to in this way and create a new column containing these values:
tmp = re.sub(r'Summary: Lib Dems in Government have given a £([0-9,\.]*).*', r'\1', tmp)
if value==tmp: tmp=''
tmp = tmp.replace(',','')
Note that there may be other text conventions describing amounts awarded that we could also try to extract as part of thes column creation.
If we cast these values to a number:
we can then use a numeric facet to help us explore the amounts.
In this case, we notice that there weren’t that many distinct factors containing the text construction we parsed, so we may need to do a little more work there to see what else we can extract. For example:
- Summary: Lib Dems in Government have secured a £73,000 grant for …
- Summary: Lib Dems in Government have secured a share of a £23,000,000 grant for … – we might not want to pull this into a “full value” column if they only got a share of the grant?
- Summary: Lib Dems in Government have given local business AJ Woods Engineering Ltd a £850,000 grant …
- Summary: Lib Dems in Government have given £982,000 to …
Here’s an improved regular expression for parsing out some more of these amounts:
tmp=re.sub(r'Summary: Lib Dems in Government have given (a )?£([0-9,\.]*).*',r'\2',tmp)
tmp=re.sub(r'Summary: Lib Dems in Government have secured a ([0-9,\.]*).*',r'\1',tmp)
tmp=re.sub(r'Summary: Lib Dems in Government have given ([^a]).* a £([0-9,\.]*) grant.*',r'\2',tmp)
So now we can start to identify some of the bigger grants…
More to add? eg around:
– ...have secured a £150,000 grant...
– Summary: Lib Dems have given a £1,571,000 grant...
– Summary: Lib Dems in Government are giving £10,000,000 to... (though maybe this should go in an ‘are giving’ column, rather than ‘have given’, cf. “will give” also…?)
– Here’s another for a ‘possible spend’ column? Summary: Lib Dems in Government have allocated £300,000 to...
Note: once you start poking around at these descriptions, you find a wealth of things like: “Summary: Lib Dems in Government have allocated £300,000 to fund the M20 Junctions 6 to 7 improvement, Maidstone , helping to reduce journey times and create 10,400 new jobs. The project will also help build 8,400 new homes.” Leading to ask the question: how many of the “one million jobs” arise from improvements to road junctions…?
In order to address this question, we might to start have a go at pulling out the number of jobs that it is claimed various schemes will create, as this column generator starts to explore:
tmp = re.sub(r'.* creat(e|ing) ([0-9,\.]*) jobs.*', r'\2', tmp)
If we start to think analytically about the text, we start to see there may be other structures we can attack… For example:
- £23,000,000 grant for local business ADS Group. … – here we might be able to pull out what an amount was awarded for, or to whom it was given.
- £950,000 to local business/project A45 Northampton to Daventry Development Link – Interim Solution A45/A5 Weedon Crossroad Improvements to improve local infastructure, creating jobs and growth – here we not only have the recipient but also the reason for the grant
But that’s for another day…
If you want to play with the data yourself, you can find it here.