Asking Questions of Data Contained in a Google Spreadsheet Using a Basic Structured Query Language

There is an old saying along the lines of “give a man a fish and you can feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you’ll feed him for a lifetime”. The same is true when you learn a little bit about structure queries languages… In the post Asking Questions of Data – Some Simple One-Liners (or Asking Questions of Data – Garment Factories Data Expedition), you can see how the SQL query language could be used to ask questions of an election related dataset hosted on Scraperwiki [no longer there:-(] that had been compiled by scraping a “Notice of Poll” PDF document containing information about election candidates. In this post, we’ll see how a series of queries constructed along very similar lines can be applied to data contained within a Google spreadsheet using the Google Chart Tools Query Language.

To provide some sort of context, I’ll stick with the local election theme, although in this case the focus will be on election results data. If you want to follow along, the data can be found in this Google spreadsheet – Isle of Wight local election data results, May 2013 (the spreadsheet key is 0AirrQecc6H_vdEZOZ21sNHpibnhmaEYxbW96dkNxZGc).

IW Poll spreadsheet

The data was obtained from a dataset originally published by the OnTheWight hyperlocal blog that was shaped and cleaned using OpenRefine using a data wrangling recipe similar to the one described in A Wrangling Example With OpenRefine: Making “Oven Ready Data”.

To query the data, I’ve popped up a simple query form on Scraperwikia Github site: Google Spreadsheet Explorer

Google spreadsheet explorer

To use the explorer, you need to:

  1. provide a spreadsheet key value and optional sheet number (for example, 0AirrQecc6H_vdEZOZ21sNHpibnhmaEYxbW96dkNxZGc);
  2. preview the table headings;
  3. construct a query using the column letters;
  4. select the output format;
  5. run the query.

So what sort of questions might we want to ask of the data? Let’s build some up.

We might start by just looking at the raw results as they come out of the spreadsheet-as-database: SELECT A,D,E,F

SImple query

We might then want to look at each electoral division seeing the results in rank order: SELECT A,D,E,F WHERE E != 'NA' ORDER BY A,F DESC

Results in order

Let’s bring the spoiled vote count back in: SELECT A,D,E,F WHERE E != 'NA' OR D CONTAINS 'spoil' ORDER BY A,F DESC (we might equally have said OR D = 'Papers spoilt').

Papers spoilt included

How about doing some sums? How does the league table of postal ballot percentages look across each electoral division? SELECT A,100*F/B WHERE D CONTAINS 'Postal' ORDER BY 100*F/B DESC

Postal Turnout

Suppose we want to look at the turnout. The “NoONRoll” column B gives the number of people eligible to vote in each electoral division, which is a good start. Unfortunately, using the data in the spreadsheet we have, we can’t do this for all electoral divisions – the “votes cast” is not necessarily the number of people who voted because some electoral divisions (Brading, St Helens & Bembridge and Nettlestone & Seaview) returned two candidates (which meant people voting were each allowed to cast up to an including two votes; the number of people who voted was in the original OnTheWight dataset). If we bear this caveat in mind, we can run the number for the other electoral divisions though. The Total votes cast is actually the number of “good” votes cast – the turnout was actually the Total votes cast plus the Papers spoilt. Let’s start by calculating the “good vote turnout” for each ward, rank the electoral divisions by turnout (ORDER BY 100*F/B DESC), label the turnout column appropriately (LABEL 100*F/B 'Percentage') and format the results ( FORMAT 100*F/B '#,#0.0') using the query SELECT A, 100*F/B WHERE D CONTAINS 'Total' ORDER BY 100*F/B DESC LABEL 100*F/B 'Percentage' FORMAT 100*F/B '#,#0.0'

Good vote turnout

Remember, the first two results are “nonsense” because electors in those electoral divisions may have cast two votes.

How about the three electoral divisions with the lowest turn out? SELECT A, 100*F/B WHERE D CONTAINS 'Total' ORDER BY 100*F/B ASC LIMIT 3 LABEL 100*F/B 'Percentage' FORMAT 100*F/B '#,#0.0' (Note that the order of the arguments – such as where to put the LIMIT – is important; the wrong order can prevent the query from running…

Worst 3 by turnout

The actual turn out (again, with the caveat in mind!) is the total votes cast plus the spoilt papers. To calculate this percentage, we need to sum the total and spoilt contributions in each electoral division and divide by the size of the electoral roll. To do this, we need to SUM the corresponding quantities in each electoral division. Because multiple (two) rows are summed for each electoral division, we find the size of the electoral roll in each electoral division as SUM(B)/COUNT(B) – that is, we count it twice and divide by the number of times we counted it. The query (without tidying) starts off looking like this: SELECT A,SUM(F)*COUNT(B)/SUM(B) WHERE D CONTAINS 'Total' OR D CONTAINS 'spoil' GROUP BY A

Summing rows in a group

In terms of popularity, who were the top 5 candidates in terms of people receiving the largest number of votes? SELECT D,A, E, F WHERE E!='NA' ORDER BY F DESC LIMIT 5

Top 5 by votes cast

How about if we normalise these numbers by the number of people on the electoral roll in the corresponding areas – SELECT D,A, E, F/B WHERE E!='NA' ORDER BY F/B DESC LIMIT 5

TOp 5 as percentage on roll

Looking at the parties, how did the sum of their votes across all the electoral divisions compare? SELECT E,SUM(F) where E!='NA' GROUP BY E ORDER BY SUM(F) DESC

VOtes by party

How about if we bring in the number of candidates who stood for each party, and normalise by this to calculate the average “votes per candidate” by party? SELECT E,SUM(F),COUNT(F), SUM(F)/COUNT(F) where E!='NA' GROUP BY E ORDER BY SUM(F)/COUNT(F) DESC

Average votes per candidate

To summarise then, in this post, we have seen how we can use a structured query language to interrogate the data contained in a Google Spreadsheet, essentially treating the Google Spreadsheet as if it were a database. The query language can also be used to to perform a series of simple calculations over the data to produce a derived dataset. Unfortunately, the query language does not allow us to nest SELECT statements in the same way we can nest SQL SELECT statements, which limits some of the queries we can run.

To What Extent Do Candidates Support Each Other Redux – A One-Liner, Thirty Second Route to the Info

In More Storyhunting Around Local Elections Data Using Gephi – To What Extent Do Candidates Support Each Other? I described a visual route to finding out which local council candidates had supported each other on their nomination papers. There is also a thirty second route to that data that I should probably have mentioned;-)

From the Scraperwiki database, we need to interrogate the API:

scraperwiki api

To do this, we’ll use a database query language – SQL.

What we need to ask the database is which of the assentors (members of the support column) are also candidates (members of the candinit column, and just return those rows. The SQL command is simply this:

select * from support where support in (select candinit from support)

Note that “support” refers to two things here – these are columns:

select * from support where support in (select candinit from support)

and these are the table the columns are being pulled from:

select * from support where support in (select candinit from support)

Here’s the result of Runing the query:

sql select on scraperwiki

We can also get a direct link to a tabular view of the data (or generate a link to a CSV output etc from the format selector).

candidates mutual table

There are 15 rows in this result compared to the 15 edges/connecting lines discovered in the Gephi approach, so each method corroborates the other:

Tidier intra-candidate support map

Simples:-)

More Storyhunting Around Local Elections Data Using Gephi – To What Extent Do Candidates Support Each Other?

In Questioning Election Data to See if It Has a Story to Tell I started to explore various ways in which we could start to search for stories in a dataset finessed out of a set of poll notices announcing the recent Isle of Wight Council elections. In this post, I’ll do a little more questioning, especially around the assentors (proposers, seconders etc) who supported each candidate, looking to see whether there are any social structures in there resulting from candidates supporting each others’ applications. The essence of what we’re doing is some simple social network analysis around the candidate/assentor network. (For an alternative route to the result, see To What Extent Do Candidates Support Each Other Redux – A One-Liner, Thirty Second Route to the Info.)

This is what we’ll be working towards:

Tidier intra-candidate support map

If you want to play along, you can get the data from my IW poll notices scrape on ScraperWiki, specifically the support table.

scraperwiki council elections - assentors

Here’s a reminder of what the original PDF doc looked like (archive copy):

IW poll notice assentors

Checking the extent to which candidates supported each other is something we could do by hand, looking down each candidate’s list of assentors for names of other candidates, but it would be a laborious job. It’s far easier(?!;-) to automate it…

When we want to compare names using a computer programme or script, the simplest approach is to do an exact string match (a string is a list of characters). Two strings match if they are exactly the same, so for example: This string is the same as This string, but not this string (they differ in their first character – upper case T in the first example as compared with lower case t in the last. We’ll be using exact string matching to identify whether a candidate has the same name as any of the assentors, so on the scraper, I did a little fiddling around with the names, in particular generating a new column that recasts the name of the candidate into the same presentation form used to identify the assentors (Firstname I. Lastname).

We can download a CSV representation of the data from the scraper directly:

Scraperwiki CSV download

The first thing I want to explore is the extent to which candidates support other candidates to see if we can identify any political groupings. The tool I’m going to use to visualise the data is Gephi, an open-source cross-platform application (requires Java) that you can download for free from gephi.org.

Gephi.org

To view the data in Gephi, it’s easiest if we rename a couple of columns so that Gephi can recognise relations between supporters and candidates; if we open the CSV download file in a text editor, we can rename the candinit as target and the column as Source to represent an arrow going from an assentor to a candidate, where the arrow reads something along the lines of “is a supporter of”.

csv rename

Start Gephi, select Data Laboratory tab and then New Project from the File menu.

geohi data lab new project

You should now see a toolbar that includes an “Import Spreadsheet option”:

gephi import spreadsheet

Import the CSV file as such, identifying it as an Edges Table:

import data into gephi data laboaratory

You should notice that the Source and Target columns have been identified as such and we have the choice to import the other column or not – let’s bring them in…

SOurce and Target recognised

You should now see the data has been loaded in to Gephi…

Data loaded in

If you click on the Overview tab button, you should see a mass of nodes/circles representing candidates and assentors with arrows going from assentors to candidates.

mess...

Let’s see how they connect – we can Run the Force Atlas 2 Layout algorithm for starters. I tweaked the Scaling value and ticked on Stronger Gravity to help shape the resulting layout:

force layout tweaks

If you look closely, you’ll be able to see that there are many separate groupings of connected circles – this represent candidates who are supported by folk who are not also candidates (sometimes a node sits on top of a line so it looks as if two noes are connected when in fact they aren’t…)

Close up simple patterns

However, there are also other groupings in which one candidate may support another:

candidate support

These connections may allow us to see grouping of candidates supporting each other along party lines.

One of the powerful things about Gephi is that it allows us to construct quite complex, nested filters that we can apply to the data based on the properties of the network the data describes so that we can focus on particular aspects of the network I’m going to filter the network so that it shows only those individuals who are supported by at least one person (in-degree 1 or more) and who support at least one person (out-degree one or more) – that is, folk who are candidates (in-degree 1 or more) who also supported (out degree 1 or more) another candidate. Let’s also turn labels on to see which candidates the filter identifies, and colour the edges along party lines. We can now see some information about the connectedness a little more clearly:

lots going on

Hmmm.. how about if we extend out filter to see who’s connected to these nodes (this might include other candidates who do not themselves assent to another candidate), and also rezise the nodes/labels so we can better see the candidates’ names. The Neigbours Network filter takes the nodes we have and then also finds the nodes that are connected to them to depth 2 in this case (that is, it brings in nodes connected to the candidates who are also supporters (depth 1), and the nodes connected to those nodes (depth two). Which is to say, it will being in the candidates who are supported by candidates, and their supporters:

A few more tweaks

That’s a bit clearer, but there are still overlapping lines, so it may make sense to layout the network again:

improve the layout

We can also experiment with other colourings – if we go to the Statistics panel, we can run a Connected Components filter that tries to find nodes that are connected into distinct groups. We can then colour each of the separate groups uniquely:

colour the groups

Let’s reset the colours and go back to colourings along party lines:

Gephi reset colours

If we go to the Preview view, we can generate a prettified view of the network:

Preview layout

In it, we can clearly see groupings along party lines (inside the blue boxes). There is something odd, though? There appears to be a connection between UKIP and Independent groupings? Let’s zoom in:

this is odd

Going back to the Graph view and zooming in, we see that Paul G. taylor appears to be supporting two candidates of different parties… Hmm – I wonder: are there actually two Paul G. Taylors, I wonder, with different political preferences? (Note to self: check on Electoral Commission website what regulations there are about assenting. Can you only assent to one person, and then only within the ward in which you are registered to vote? For local elections, could you be registered to vote in more than one electoral division within the same council area?)

To check that there are no other names that support more than one candidate, we can create another, simple filter that just selects nodes with out-degree 2 or more – that is, who support 2 or more other nodes:

Filter on nodes out degree 2

Just that one then…

Looking at the fuller chart, it’s still rather scruffy. We could tidy it by removing assentors who are not themselves candidates (that is, there are no arrows pointing in to them). The way Gephi filters work support chaining. If you look at the filters, you will see they are nested, much like a nested comment thread in a forum. Filters at the bottom of the tree act on the graph and pass the filtereed network to date up the tree to the next filter. This means we can pass the network as shown above into another filter layer that removes folk who are “just” assentors and not candidates.

nested filters

Here’s the result:

Nesting filters in gephi

And again we can go into Preview mode to generate a nice vectorised version of the graph:

Tidier intra-candidate support map

This quite clearly shows several mutual support networks between Labour candidates (red edges), Conservative candidates (blue edges), independents (black edges) and a large grouping of UKIP candidates (purple edges).

So there we have it a quick tour of how to use Gephi to look at the co-support structure of group of local election candidates. Were the highlighted candidates to be successful in their election, it could signify possible factions or groupings within the council, particular amongst the independents? Along the way we saw how to make use of filters, and spotted something we need to check (whether the same person supported two candidates (if that isn’t allowed?) or whether they are two different people sharing the same name.

If this all seems like too much effort, remembers that there’s always the One-Liner, Thirty Second Route to the Info.

PS by the by, a recent FOI request on WhatDoTheyKnow suggests another possible line of enquiry around possible candidates – if they have been elected to the council before, how good was their attendance record? (I don’t think OpenlyLocal scrapes this information? Presumably it is available somewhere on the council website?)

Questioning Election Data to See if It Has a Story to Tell

I know, I know, the local elections are old news now, but elections come round again and again, which means building up a set of case examples of what we might be able to do – data wise – around elections in the future could be handy…

So here’s one example of a data-related question we might ask (where in this case by data I mean “information available in: a) electronic form, that b) can be represented in a structured way): are the candidates standing in different seats local to that ward/electoral division?. By “local”, I mean – can they vote in that ward by virtue of having a home address that lays within that ward?

Here’s what the original data for my own local council (the Isle of Wight council, a unitary authority) looked like – a multi-page PDF document collating the Notice of polls for each electoral division (archive copy):

IW council - notice of poll

Although it’s a PDF, the document is reasonably nicely structured for scraping (I’ll do a post on this over the next week or two) – you can find a Scraperwiki scraper here. I pull out three sorts of data – information about the polling stations (the table at the bottom of the page), information about the signatories (of which, more in a later post…;-), and information about the candidates, including the electoral division in which they were standing (the “ward” column) and a home address for them, as shown here:

scraperwiki candidates

So what might we be able to do with this information? Does the home address take us anywhere interesting? Maybe. If we can easily look up the electoral division the home addresses fall in, we have a handful of news story search opportunities: 1) to what extent are candidates – and election winners – “local”? 2) do any of the parties appear to favour standing in/out of ward candidates? 3) if candidates are standing out of their home ward, why? If we complement the data with information about the number of votes cast for each candidate, might we be able to find any patterns suggestive of a beneficial or detrimental effect living within, or outside of, the electoral division a candidate is standing in, and so on.

In this post, I’ll describe a way of having a conversation with the data using OpenRefine and Google Fusion Tables as a way of starting to explore some the stories we may be able to tell with, and around, the data. (Bruce Mcphereson/Excel Liberation blog has also posted an Excel version of the methods described in the post: Mashing up electoral data. Thanks, Bruce:-)

Let’s get the data into OpenRefine so we can start to work it. Scraperwiki provides a CSV output format for each scraper table, so we can get a URL for it that we can then use to pull the data into OpenRefine:

scraperwiki CSV export

In OpenRefine, we can Create a New Project and then import the data directly:

openrefine import from URL

The data is in comma separated CSV format, so let’s specify that:

import as csv comma separated

We can then name and create the project and we’re ready to start…

…but start what? If we want to find out if a candidate lives in ward or out of ward, we either need to know whether their address is in ward or out of ward, or we need to find out which ward their address is in and then see if it is the same as the one they are standing in.

Now it just so happens (:-) that MySociety run a service called MapIt that lets you submit a postcode and it tells you a whole host of things about what administrative areas that postcode is in, including (in this case) the unitary authority electoral division.

mapit postcode lookup

And what’s more, MapIt also makes the data available in a format that’s data ready for OpenRefine to be able to read at a web address (aka a URL) that we can construct from a postcode:

mapit json

Here’s an example of just such a web address: http://mapit.mysociety.org/postcode/PO36%200JT

Can you see the postcode in there? http://mapit.mysociety.org/postcode/PO36%200JT

The %20 is a character encoding for a space. In this case, we can also use a +.

So – to get information about the electoral division an address lays in, we need to get the postcode, construct a URL to pull down corresponding data from MapIt, and then figure out some way to get the electoral division name out of the data. But one step at a time, eh?!;-)

Hmmm…I wonder if postcode areas necessarily fall within electoral divisions? I can imagine (though it may be incorrect to do so!) a situation where a division boundary falls within a postcode area, so we need to be suspicious about the result, or at least bear in mind that an address falling near a division boundary may be wrongly classified. (I guess if we plot postcodes on a map, we could look to see how close to the boundary line they are, because we already know how to plot boundary lines.

To grab the postcode, a quick skim of the addresses suggests that they are written in a standard way – the postcode always seems to appear at the end of the string preceded by a comma. We can use this information to extract the postcode, by splitting the address at each comma into an ordered list of chunks, then picking the last item in the list. Because the postcode might be preceded by a space character, it’s often convenient for us to strip() any white space surrounding it.

What we want to do then is to create a new, derived column based on the address:

Add derived column

And we do this by creating a list of comma separated chunks from the address, picking the last one (by counting backwards from the end of the list), and then stripping off any whitespace/space characters that surround it:

grab a postcode

Here’s the result…

postcodes...

Having got the postcode, we can now generate a URL from it and then pull down the data from each URL:

col from URL

When constructing the web address, we need to remember to encode the postcode by escaping it so as not to break the URL:

get data from URL

The throttle value slows down the rate at which OpenRefine loads in data from the URLs. If we set it to 500 milliseconds, it will load one page every half a second.

When it’s loaded in all the data, we get a new column, filled with data from the MapIt service…

lots of data

We now need to parse this data (which is in a JSON format) to pull out the electoral division. There’s a bit of jiggery pokery required to do this, and I couldn’t work it out myself at first, but Stack Overflow came to the rescue:

that's handy...

We need to tweak that expression slightly by first grabbing the areas data from the full set of MapIt data. Here’s the expression I used:

filter(('[' + (value.parseJson()['areas'].replace( /"[0-9]+":/,""))[1,-1] + ']' ).parseJson(), v, v['type']=='UTE' )[0]['name']

to create a new column containing the electoral division:

parse out the electroal division

Now we can create another column, this time based on the new Electoral Division column, that compares the value against the corresponding original “ward” column value (i.e. the electoral division the candidate was standing in) and prints a message saying whether they were standing in ward or out:

inward or out

If we collapse down the spare columns, we get a clearer picture:

collapse...

Like this:

summary data

If we generate a text facet on the In/Out column, and increase the number of rows displayed, we can filter the results to show just the candidates who stood in their local electoral division (or conversely, those who stood outside it):

facet on inout

We can also start to get investigative, and ask some more questions of the data. For example, we could apply a text facet on the party/desc column to let us filter the results even more…

inout facet filter

Hmmm… were most of the Labour Party candidates standing outside their home division (and hence unable to vote for themselves?!)

Hmm.. labour out

There aren’t too many parties represented across the Island elections (a text facet on the desc/party description column should reveal them all), so it wouldn’t be too hard to treat the data as a source, get paper and pen in hand, and write down the in/out counts for each party describing the extent to which they fielded candidates who lived in the electoral divisions they were standing in (and as such, could vote for themselves!) versus those who lived “outside”. This data could reasonably be displayed using a staggered bar chart (the data collection and plotting are left as an exercise for the reader [See Bruce Mcphereson’s Mashing up electoral data post for a stacked bar chart view.];-) Another possible questioning line is how do the different electoral divisions fare in terms of in-vs-out resident candidates. If we pull in affluence/poverty data, might it tell us anything about the likelihood of candidates living in area, or even tell us something about the likely socio-economic standing of the candidates?

One more thing we could try to do is to geocode the postcode of the address of the each candidate rather more exactly. A blog post by Ordnance Survey blogger John Goodwin (@gothwin) shows how we might do this (note: copying the code from John’s post won’t necessarily work; WordPress has a tendency to replace single quotes with all manner of exotic punctuation marks that f**k things up when you copy and paste them into froms for use in other contexts). When we “Add column by fetching URLs”, we should use something along the lines of the following:

'http://beta.data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/datasets/code-point-open/apis/search?output=json&query=' + escape(value,'url')

os postcode lookup

The data, as imported from the Ordnance Survey, looks something like this:

o:sdata

As is the way of national services, the Ordnance Survey returns a data format that is all well and good but isn’t the one that mortals use. Many of my geo-recipes rely on latitude and longitude co-ordinates, but the call to the Ordnance Survey API returns Eastings and Northings.

Fortunately, Paul Bradshaw had come across this problem before (How to: Convert Easting/Northing into Lat/Long for an Interactive Map) and bludgeoned(?!;-) Stuart harrison/@pezholio, ex- of Lichfield Council, now of the Open Data Institute, to produce a pop-up service that returns lat/long co-ordinates in exchange for a Northing/Easting pair.

The service relies on URLs of the form http://www.uk-postcodes.com/eastingnorthing.php?easting=EASTING&northing=NORTHING, which we can construct from data returned from the Ordnance Survey API:

easting northing lat -long

Here’s what the returned lat/long data looks like:

lat-long json

We can then create a new column derived from this JSON data by parsing it as follows
parse latlong to lat

A similar trick can be used to generate a column containing just the longitude data.

We can then export a view over the data to a CSV file, or direct to Google Fusion tables.

postcode lat long export

With the data in Google Fusion Tables, we can let Fusion Tables know that the Postcode lat and Postcode long columns define a location:2222

Fusion table edit column

Specifically, we pick either the lat or the long column and use it to cast a two column latitude and longitude location type:

fusion table config cols to location type

We can inspect the location data using a more convenient “natural” view over it…

fusion table add map

By applying a filter, we can look to see where the candidates for a particular ward have declared their home address to be:

havenstreet candidates

(Note – it would be more useful to plot these markers over a boundary line defined region corresponding to the area covered by the corresponding electoral ward. I don’t think Fusion Table lets you do this directly (or if it does, I don’t know how to do it..!). This workaround – FusionTablesLayer Wizard – on merging outputs from Fusion Tables as separate layers on a Google Map is the closest I’ve found following a not very thorough search;-)

We can go back to the tabular view in Fusion Tables to run a filter to see who the candidates were in a particular electoral division, or we can go back to OpenRefine and run a filter (or a facet) on the ward column to see who the candidates were:

refine filter by division

Filtering on some of the other wards using local knowledge (i.e. using the filter to check/corroborate things I knew), I spotted a couple of missing markers. Going back to the OpenRefine view of the data, I ran a facetted view on the postcode to see if there were any “none-postcodes” there that would in turn break the Ordnance Survey postcode geocoding/lookup:

postcode missing...

Ah – oops… It seems we have a “data quality” issue, although albeit a minor one…

So, what do we learn from all this? One take away for me is that data is a source we can ask questions of. If we have a story or angle in mind, we can tune our questions to tease out corroborating facts (possbily! caveat emptor applies!) that might confirm, helpdevelop, or even cause us to rethink, the story we are working towards telling based on the support the data gives us.

A Wrangling Example With OpenRefine: Making “Oven Ready Data”

As well as being a great tool for cleaning data, OpenRefine can also be used to good effect when you need to wrangle a dataset into another shape. Take this set of local election results published by the Isle of Wight local online news blog, onthewight.com:

onthewight results

There’s lots of information in there (rank of each candidate for each electoral division, votes cast per candidate, size of electorate for the division, and hence percentage turnout, and so on), and it’s very nearly available in a ready data format – that is, a data format that is ready for reuse… Something like this, for example:

Slightly tidier

Or how about something like this, that shows the size of the electorate for each ward:

turnout

So how can we get from the OnTheWight results into a ready data format?

Let’s start by copying all the data from OnTheWight (click into the results frame, select all (ctrl-A) and copy (ctrl-v); I’ve also posted a copy of the data I grabbed here*), then paste the data into a new OpenRefine project:

Paste data into OpenRefine

* there were a couple of data quality issues (now resolved in the sheet published by OnTheWight) which relate to the archived data file/data used in this walkthrough. Here are the change notes from @onTheWight:

_Corrected vote numbers
Totland - Winning votes wrong - missed zero off end - 420 not 42
Brading, St Helens & Bembridge - Mike Tarrant (UKIP) got 741 not 714

_Votes won by figures – filled in
Lots of the ‘Votes won by figures’ had the wrong number in them. It’s one of the few figures that needed a manual formula update and in the rush of results (you heard how fast they come), it just wasn’t possible.

‘Postal votes (inc)’ line inserted between ‘Total votes cast’ and ‘Papers spoilt’

Deleted an empty row from Ventnor West

The data format is “tab separated”, so we can import it as such. We might as well get rid of the blank lines at the same time.

import data as TSV no blanks

You also need to ensure that the Parse cell text into number/dates… option is selected.

OpenRefine

Here’s what we end up with:

ELection data raw import

The data format I want is has a column specifying the ward each candidate stood in. Let’s start by creating a new column that is a copy of the column that has the Electoral Division names in it:

COpy a column

Let’s define the new column as having exactly the same value as the original column:

Create new col as copy of old

Now we start puzzling based on what we want to achieve bearing in mind what we can do with OpenRefine. (Sometimes there are many ways of solving a problem, sometimes there is only one, sometimes there may not be any obvious route…)

The Electoral Division column contains the names of the Electoral Divisions on some rows, and numbers (highlighted green) on others. If we identify the rows containing numbers in that column, we can blank them out… The Numeric facet will let us do that:

Facet the numbers

Select just the rows containing a numeric value in the Electoral Division column, and then replace those values with blanks.

IW_results_txt_-_OpenRefine

Then remove the numeric facet filter:

filter update

Here’s the result, much tidier:

Much tidier

Before we fill in the blanks with the Electoral Division names, let’s just note that there is at least one “messy” row in there corresponding to Winning Margin. We don’t really need that row – we can always calculate it – so let’s remove it. One way of doing this is to display just the rows containing the “Winning margin” string in column three, and then delete them. We can use the TExt filter to highlight the rows:

Selectt OpenRefine filter

Simply state the value you want to filter on and blitz the matching rows…

CHoose rows then blitz them

…then remove the filter:

then remove the filter

We can now fill down a the blanks in the Electoral Division column:

Fill down on Electoral Division

Fill down starts at the top of the column then works its way down, filling in blank cells in that column with whatever was in the cell immediately above.

Filled down - now flag unwanted row

Looking at the data, I notice the first row is also “unwanted”. If we flag it, we can then facet/filter on that row from the All menu:

facet on flagged row

Then we can Remove all matching rows from the cell menu as we did above, then remove the facet.

Now we can turn to just getting the data relating to votes cast per candidate (we could also leave in the other returns). Let’s use a trick we’ve already used before – facet by numeric:

Remove header rows

And then this time just retain the non-numeric rows.

Electoral ward properties

Hmmm..before we remove it, this data could be worth keeping too in its own right? Let’s rename the columns:

Rename column

Like so:

columns renamed

Now let’s just make those comma mangled numbers into numbers, by transforming them:

transform the cells by removeing commas

The transform we’re going to use is to replace the comma by nothing:

replace comma

Then convert the values to a number type.

then convert to number

We can the do the same thing for the Number on Roll column:

reuse is good

We seem to have a rogue row in there too – a Labour candidate with a 0% poll. We can flag that row and delete it as we did above.

Final stages of electroal division data

There also seem to be a couple of other scrappy rows – the overall count and another rogue percentage bearing line, so again we can flag these, do an All facet on them, remove all rows and then remove the flag facet.

a little more tidying to do

Having done that, we can take the opportunity to export the data.

openrefine exporter

Using the custom tabular exporter, we can select the columns we wish to export.

Export column select

Then we can export the data to the desktop as a file in a variety of formats:

OPenrefine export download

Or we can upload it to a Google document store, such as Google Spreadsheets or Google Fusion Tables:

OPenRefine upload to goole

Here’s the data I uploaded.

If we go back to the results for candidates by ward, we can export that data too, although I’d be tempted to do a little bit more tidying, for example by removing the “Votes won by” rows, and maybe also the Total Votes Cast column. I’d probably also rename what is now the Candidates column to something more meaningful! (Can you work out how?!;-)

change filter settings

When we upload the data, we can tweak the column ordering first so that the data makes a little more sense at first glance:

reorder columns

Here’s what I uploaded to a Google spreadsheet:

Spreadsheet

[OpenRefine project file]

So – there you have it… another OpenRefine walkthrough. Part conversation with the data, part puzzle. As with most puzzles, once you start to learn the tricks, it becomes ever easier… Or you can start taking on ever more complex puzzles…

Although you may not realise it, most of the work related to generating raw graphics has now been done. Once the data has a reasonable shape to it, it becomes oven ready, data ready, and is relatively easy to work with.

UK Local Elections 2013 – Live Data, Live Results Maps…

I wonder whether this will be the last round of elections without a national live data feed from somewhere pushing out the results in a standardised form? So far, here are the local “live election data” initiatives I’ve spotted/had pointed out to me:

Lincolnshire

The Lincolnite – Lincolnshire Local Elections 2013, described here: The Lincolnite to cover elections live with interactive map. (Ex-?) University of Lincoln developer Alex Bilbie (@alexbilbie), who built the Lincolnshire map app, describes a little of the process behind it here Developing an interactive county council election map (part one).

Lincolnshore live election map

Warwickshire

2013 Elections: Warwickshire area, described here: 2013 Elections – In Real Time.

warwickshire live election map

The Warwickshire team are also making shapefiles/KML files (for the plotting of boundary line maps) and live results data (via Google Fusion Tables) too, as well as making data available about previously elected candidates: 2013 Elections – In Real Time

Here’s the map after the fact… I like the clear statement of seats by part in the bottom left corner too…

Warwickshire

Surrey

Surrey has the Surrey elections dashboard (via @BenUnsworth) that will switch to a live map as the results come in, but currently offers a search box that accepts a postcode and then tells you who your candidates are and where you can vote:

Surrey elections dashboard

Kent
This looks pretty, from Kent County Council:

Kent live election results

I was looking forward to seeing how this view played out once the results started to come in, but, erm, oops?!

oops - Kent

Managing the bursty load on an election results service server is probably something worth building into the planning…

Bristol
Bristol opted for a tabbed display showing a range of views over their council elecitons results. A simple coloured symbol maps shows the distribution of seats by ward across the parties:

Bristol election map

Bristol also provided a view over the turnout:
Bristol turnout

(Would it be useful to also be able to see this as percentage turnouts? Or to depict the proportional turnout on a map to see if any geographical reasons jump out as a source of possible differences?)

Cumbria
Cumbria County Council show how to make use of boundary files to mark or <choropleth election maps relate the party affiliation of the candidate taking each particular seat by electoral division area:

Cumbria election map

Cumbria also provided a view of seat allocations in districts; I don’t understand the scale they used to on the x-axes though? It differs from district to district. For example, it looks to me as if more seats went to Conservatives in Eden than in Carlise? Or is the scale related to the percentage of seats in the district? I’d class as “infographic-standard”, i.e. meaningless as a visualisation;-)
Cumbria district summary  - bad scales?

Norfolk

Norfolk’s election map looks quite, erm, “child-friendly” (chunky?! kids TV?) to me?

Norfolk election map

Norfolk also produced a graphic showing how seats might be distributed in the chamber:

Norfolk seats

I think one of the major issues with this sort of graphic is how you communicate the possible structurings of the chamber based on what sort of affiliations and groupings play out?

Wales Online

Wales online have a nice clean feel to their results map for Anglesey, but what’s going on with the legend? They don’t make it easy to get the branding into the screengrab either?!

Wales online report - Anglesey

National Reporting

THe Telegraph produced a map showing results of the elections at national scale based on control of councils by party:

Telegraph

And ever helpful, the Guardian datablog made the data available (will they do data broken down at seat level too, I wonder?) Here’s the map they produced:

guardian elecotion map

Hmmm… do I recognise that sort of layout? Ah, I know, it reminds me of this example of Data Journalists Engaging in Co-Innovation… around boundary changes.

Other…
For lists of current councillors, see OpenlyLocal, which has data available via a JSON API relating to current councillors and their affiliations. (It would be good if a frozen snapshot of this could be grabbed today, for comparison with the results following today’s election?)

This may also be of interest… UK Data Service British Local Election Database, 1889-2003 and Andrew Teale’s Local Elections Archive Project.

Data relating to general elections can be found on the Electoral Commission website: General Elections. TheyWorkForYou provide an API over current MPs by constituency, and MySOciety also produce the MapIt service for accessing constituency and electoral division boundary line data files.

If you’re interested in doing something data related around the election, or would like to learn how to do something with the data generated by the election, check out this informal resource co-ordination document. If you’re interested in checking out your local council website to see whether they publish any #opendata that would help you generate you own live maps, dashboards or consoles, the School of Data post “wot I wrote” on Proving the Data – A Quick Guide to Mapping England and Wales Local Elections may provide you with a quick start guide to making use of some of it…

If you know of any other councils or local presses publishing election related data warez, maps, live data feeds, etc, please post a link and brief description in the comments, and I’ll try to keep this post up to date…

Boundary Files for Electoral Wards Covered by a Particular Geography

A week or so ago, I went looking for boundary lines for UK electoral wards, with half a mind towards trying to do something with them related to this week’s local council elections. One source I came across was the UK 2011 Census, (2011 Census geography products for England and Wales) which publishes the appropriate data from across England and Wales in large single shapefiles. For the amateur cartographer (which I very much am!) wanting to work at a local level, this presents something of a challenge: not only do I have to find a way of downloading and opening the large dataset, I also need to find a way of extracting from it the data for my local area, which is what I actually want. (Getting the local data from the national dataset can be blocking, in other words.)

Another source of data is MySociety’s MapIt service, which provides data about various geographies, including electoral wards, covered by other geographical areas:

mapit areas covered

as well as boundary files for each geography in a variety of formats:

Mapit Geometry

Unfortunately, the MapIt API doesn’t (yet?!) support the ability to generate a single file that contains boundary data for all the electoral wards in a single council or local authority area. So here’s a quick hack, posted as a view on Scraperwiki, that generates a single KML file for the electoral wards contained by a council area (including the wider boundary of that council area) – KML Merge Test. (There are probably better ways of doing this?! I would if I should try to make sense of the MapIt code to see if I can work out how to submit a proper patch…)

import scraperwiki,simplejson,urllib2
from lxml import etree
from copy import deepcopy


#--via @mhawksey
# query string crib https://views.scraperwiki.com/run/python_querystring_cheat_sheet/?
import cgi, os
qstring=os.getenv("QUERY_STRING")

key='65791' #Use the Isle of Wight as a default
typ='UTE'
#typs are:
#CTY (county council), CED (county ward), COI (Isles of Scilly), COP (Isles of Scilly parish), CPC (civil parish/community), CPW (civil parish/community ward), DIS (district council), DIW (district ward), EUR (Euro region), GLA (London Assembly), LAC (London Assembly constituency), LBO (London borough), LBW (London ward), LGD (NI council), LGE (NI electoral area), LGW (NI ward), MTD (Metropolitan district), MTW (Metropolitan ward), NIE (NI Assembly constituency), OLF (Lower Layer Super Output Area, Full), OLG (Lower Layer Super Output Area, Generalised), OMF (Middle Layer Super Output Area, Full), OMG (Middle Layer Super Output Area, Generalised), SPC (Scottish Parliament constituency), SPE (Scottish Parliament region), UTA (Unitary authority), UTE (Unitary authority electoral division), UTW (Unitary authority ward), WAC (Welsh Assembly constituency), WAE (Welsh Assembly region), WMC (UK Parliamentary constituency)

if qstring!=None:
    get = dict(cgi.parse_qsl(qstring))
    if 'key' in get: key=get['key']
    if 'typ' in get: typ=get['typ'] 
#---


#Get a stub KML file for the local council level
url='http://mapit.mysociety.org/area/'+str(key)+'.kml'
xmlraw = urllib2.urlopen(url).read()
xml=etree.fromstring(xmlraw)

#Get the list of electoral wards covered by that council area
wards=simplejson.load(urllib2.urlopen('http://mapit.mysociety.org/area/'+str(key)+'/covers?type='+typ))

#Get the KML for each ward, extract the Placemark data, and add it to our comprehensive KML tree
for ward in wards:
    url='http://mapit.mysociety.org/area/'+ward+'.kml'
    xmlraw = scraperwiki.scrape(url)
    xml2=etree.fromstring(xmlraw)
    p= xml2.xpath('//geo:Placemark',namespaces={'geo':'http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2'})
    xml.append( deepcopy(p[0] ))

scraperwiki.utils.httpresponseheader("Content-Type", "text/xml")
print etree.tostring(xml)

The key value is the ID of the council area within which you want to find the electoral wards. So for example the Isle of Wight parliamentary constituency page -http://mapit.mysociety.org/area/65791.html – gives us the ID 65791, which we pass as an argument to the Scraperwiki view. The subdivision we want to grab data for is given by the typ parameter:

CTY (county council), CED (county ward), COI (Isles of Scilly), COP (Isles of Scilly parish), CPC (civil parish/community), CPW (civil parish/community ward), DIS (district council), DIW (district ward), EUR (Euro region), GLA (London Assembly), LAC (London Assembly constituency), LBO (London borough), LBW (London ward), LGD (NI council), LGE (NI electoral area), LGW (NI ward), MTD (Metropolitan district), MTW (Metropolitan ward), NIE (NI Assembly constituency), OLF (Lower Layer Super Output Area, Full), OLG (Lower Layer Super Output Area, Generalised), OMF (Middle Layer Super Output Area, Full), OMG (Middle Layer Super Output Area, Generalised), SPC (Scottish Parliament constituency), SPE (Scottish Parliament region), UTA (Unitary authority), UTE (Unitary authority electoral division), UTW (Unitary authority ward), WAC (Welsh Assembly constituency), WAE (Welsh Assembly region), WMC (UK Parliamentary constituency)

So for example, here’s a link to an aggregate KML file for Unitary authority electoral divisions (UTE) on the Isle of Wight – https://views.scraperwiki.com/run/kml_merge_test/?key=65791; and here’s one for Unitary authority wards (UTW) in Milton Keynes: https://views.scraperwiki.com/run/kml_merge_test/?key=2588&typ=UTW

If you save the resulting file as a .kml file (for example, as kml_merge_test_mk.kml) you can then load it into something like Google Fusion tables to view it:

GOogle fusion table map

Note that the MapIt API is rate limited (I think), so be gentle ;-)